The second period of the Order’s history was ushered in by a reform initiated at the General Chapter of 1410. This reform, influenced by a spiritual movement called the devotio moderna, was spearheaded by the priory of St. Agatha in the Netherlands and was typified by a very personal devotional spirituality. While the house at Huy remained the motherhouse, St. Agatha became the spiritual center of a reformed and revitalized Order. During the Protestant Reformation, many Crosier priories and churches were suppressed, and under Henry VIII all the houses in England were confiscated. By the end of the 18th century, the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic reforms further reduced the number of Crosiers, and by the early 1800s, only two priories remained—St. Agatha and another in Uden, also in the Netherlands. By 1840, because secular authorities had forbidden men to join, only four elderly Crosiers remained.